IAMAT |International Association of Medical Assistance to Travellers| IAMAT |International Association of Medical Assistance to Travellers|
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Travel Stress

Travel is generally enjoyable and sometimes life transforming, but it can be stressful. Lack of familiar support systems, disrupted daily routines, language barriers, culture shock, and unexpected situations can intensify stress levels rather than alleviate them. Travel also forces you to give up your sense of control: It challenges perceptions, can reveal personal limitations, and may alter your thinking, mood, behaviour, and reactions.

What is travel stress?

Stress is the body’s natural response to a threat or danger – whether it’s real or imagined. Travel stress is related to the situational pressures, anxieties, or challenges of travelling. Certain amounts of stress are a normal part of everyday life but problems or situations you encounter while travelling, whether big or small, can become more difficult to manage when you are in a new or unfamiliar environment.

Travel stress varies from person to person and can depend on your past experiences, tolerance of new circumstances, nervousness about things going wrong, and fears about the unexpected.

Signs of stress include:

  • Difficulty concentrating or thinking clearly
  • Irritability
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness or nausea
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Headaches or muscle tension
  • Shortness of breath

Travel stress can trigger or exacerbate an existing mental health condition. Persistent feelings of stress can also lead to anxiety or depression. Even if you have no prior history of mental illness, mood changes, substance misuse, and extreme anxiety can potentially disrupt a trip. Recognizing the warning signs and knowing where to get help abroad are key to a safe trip.

How can I deal with travel stress?

Travel stress can be caused by a number of factors – many of which may be out of your control. From the initial stages of planning a trip or the hiccups you may encounter along the way, travel stress can take hold at any point. Anticipating where stress may arise and knowing how to diffuse stressful situations are key to minimizing travel stress and enjoying your trip.

Managing expectations

Visualizing a trip is helpful for planning purposes, but having preconceived notions about how it should unfold can lead to unrealistic expectations. If your trip does not go as planned, it can be disappointing and stressful. Dealing with unexpected circumstances in a country where you don’t know the language, are not surrounded by familiar support systems or are unable to express your needs can be overwhelming. Travelling to validate your self-worth, seek happiness abroad, or avoid circumstances back home may also not turn out as expected and could be frustrating.

When personal goals are not met, self-blame, sadness, anxiety, and depression can occur or you may vent your frustration at others. Keep in mind that you are in control of your own outlook and expectations, and you may need to make adjustments based on your circumstances. The need to be in constant control or compete with others can lead to negative travel experiences.

How to manage your expectations:

  • Regularly assess your original plans and change them if needed to minimize your stress levels.
  • If your expectations are not met, find acceptable, non-confrontational solutions to improve the situation.
  • Take the time to enjoy the people, new sights, sounds, smells, and experiences in your host country. Be present and try to live in the moment.
  • Know your mental and physical limits. Take the time you need to check-in with yourself and do activities you enjoy or find relaxing.
Culture shock

Culture shock is a temporary psychological stress that occurs when you are overwhelmed by a new culture and do not know how to adapt or fit into the new environment. Factors that contribute to culture shock include not speaking the language, not understanding the local customs or understanding appropriate behaviour, disliking the food, accommodations, or lifestyle, and being a visible minority. Witnessing or experiencing situations starkly different to your own life (such as poverty, war, starvation, homelessness, as well as homophobia and racial, ethic, and gender discrimination) can also cause culture shock.

All travellers experience culture shock to varying degrees, but the intensity depends on one’s disposition and tolerance for new experiences. You may not experience culture shock immediately, but as excitement about the trip wanes, the reality of being in an environment where things are done differently can set in. Experiencing culture shock can lead to a sense of insecurity and inadequacy, homesickness, isolation, loneliness, sadness, confusion, anxiety, frustration or depression.

How to manage culture shock:

  • Take the time to research your host culture, learn about the customs and social mores.
  • Learn the language. If you don’t have time, learn basic words and phrases to help you get around.
  • Learn about the current political situation and social environment of the country you will be visiting.
  • Travel with a positive attitude and find ways to accept things that don’t satisfy you completely. If you have difficulty adapting, talk to a friend, family member, or mental health professional about your experience and figure out how to improve your situation.
  • If you’re planning a long-term trip, join activities or practice your hobbies in your new community to meet people who have the same interests as you.
  • Back home, volunteer for an organization that can benefit from your experience abroad.

The inability to deal rationally and calmly with a challenging situation can progress to rage (such as air and road rage). It is typically expressed in outbursts of extreme anger or violence that are unprovoked or disproportionate to the provocation, either real or perceived. Travel-related rage is not common, but it has gained widespread media attention.

Incidents of rage tend to occur in unfamiliar and overstimulating environments like airports, airplanes, hotels, major transportation hubs, and popular tourist sites. For some travellers, overcrowding, delays, lack of information, lack of manners, and boorish behaviour, as well as arguments with transportation or service personnel can result in uncontrollable rage.

Signs of oncoming rage include raised voice, not listening to or ignoring another person, sweating, chest tightening, palpitations, twitching, verbal abuse, physical violence, and destruction of property. Be aware that in some countries disturbing the peace and suspicious or violent behaviour can result in criminal charges, fines, or imprisonment.

How to prevent rage:

  • Refrain from drinking alcohol or using other psychoactive substances when travelling, especially in transit.
  • Learn how and when to let go of situations you cannot control; adjust your behaviour based on the circumstance. Accept that other people are not responsible for events beyond their control.
  • Know when to stop a challenging situation from escalating. Find acceptable, non-confrontational solutions. Do not take it personally; it most likely was not intended to offend or disappoint.
  • Practice breathing exercises to relieve stress. Meditate, practice your spirituality, or find a peaceful place to relax.
  • Integrate physical activity such as walking and stretching into your itinerary. Make sure to get the appropriate amount of sleep and eat a healthy diet.

Travel and mental health checklist 

Before you leave

  • Consult your healthcare practitioner to discuss if the type of travel you are planning is right for you. Get advice on how to stay healthy and cope with the effects of travel stress and jet lag.
  • Find a reputable health or mental health professional at your destination who speaks your language. You may want to contact them prior to your trip to ensure continuity of care.
  • Book the most direct route possible to your destination; avoid layovers and long hours in transit.
  • Travel with a trusted friend, family member, or professional travel companion. If you are travelling alone, set up regular check-in times to reach a family member or friend.
  • Register with your embassy or consulate in case you need their assistance during an emergency abroad.

During your trip 

  • Give yourself plenty of time to arrive and go through security checks. Note that airports, train stations, bus depots generally have medical facilities that can support you as needed.
  • Establish a routine that sets the tone for your trip. Familiarize yourself with your surroundings and if you can, integrate some activities that you are used to doing back home or bring you a sense of comfort. 
  • Bring a calming item (a book, listening to music on your iPod), memento, or journal that provides comfort during stressful situations. 
  • Know your mental and physical limits. Regularly re-assess your original plans and change them to minimize stress levels. 
  • Know when to stop a challenging situation from escalating. Find non-confrontational solutions. 
  • Practice relaxing breathing exercises and integrate physical activity like walking and stretching to relieve stress. Get the appropriate amount of sleep, eat a healthy diet, and stay hydrated. 

When you return 

  • Book an extra day or two off after you return to mentally and physically recover from your trip. This will help you adjust from jet lag and help you get back into your daily routine. 
  • Follow up with your healthcare practitioner if you needed emergency care abroad or to address any concerns you may have related to post-travel readjustment. 

More information

Check out other resources in our Travel and Mental Health Series:

Download the full tipsheet

For more information on travel stress, download the full tipsheet below:


Last reviewed and updated: December 11, 2020.