Risk is present throughout the country, excluding urban areas, and excluding the areas specified:
There is no risk in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Da Nang, Nha Trang, Qui Nhon, the Red River Delta, and the coastal area along National Route 1A.
Note: Risk is present in all rural areas. The highest incidence rates have been reported from the central highland provinces particularly in Binh Phuoc, Dak Lak, Dak Nong, Gia Lai and Kon Tum, and the western parts of the following provinces: Khanh Hoa, Ninh Thuan, Quang Nam and Quang Tri.
High risk months for Malaria are: January to December
Malaria transmission vector(s): A.minimus, A.sundaicus
Incidence of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria: > 50%
Of the five species of human malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum is the most dangerous. The remaining percentage represents malaria infections that may be caused by one or more of the following parasites: Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium knowlesi.
Areas with drug resistant Malaria: The provinces of Dak Lak, Gia Lai, Khan Hoa, Kon Tum, Lam Dong, Ninh Thuan, Song Be, and Tay Ninh report P. falciparum malaria resistance to chloroquine, mefloquine hydrochloride and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine.
All malaria infections are serious illnesses and must be treated as a medical emergency. In offering guidance on the choice of antimalarial drugs, the main concern is to provide protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the most dangerous and often fatal form of the illness.
Regardless of the medication which has been taken, it is of utmost importance for travellers and their physician to consider fever and flu-like symptoms appearing 7 days up to several months after leaving a malarious area as a malaria breakthrough. Early diagnosis is essential for successful treatment.
In addition to the suggested antimalarial medication, use a mosquito bed net and effective repellents to avoid the bite of the nocturnal Anopheles mosquito.
Brand names: Malarone, Malanil and others; generics available.
TAKE 1 TABLET DAILY (ATOVAQUONE 250 mg + PROGUANIL 100 mg).
START 1-2 DAYS BEFORE ENTERING THE MALARIOUS AREA, CONTINUE DAILY DURING YOUR STAY AND CONTINUE FOR 7 DAYS AFTER LEAVING.
Note: Take at the same time every day with food or milk.
Brand names: Vibramycin and others; generics available.
TAKE 1 TABLET DAILY (100 mg).
START 1 DAY BEFORE ENTERING MALARIOUS AREA, CONTINUE DAILY DURING YOUR STAY AND CONTINUE FOR 4 WEEKS AFTER LEAVING.
Note: When taking this drug, avoid exposure to direct sunlight and use sunscreen with protection against long range ultraviolet radiation (UVA) to minimize risk of photosensitive reaction. Take with large amounts of water to prevent esophageal and stomach irritation.
Brand names: Lariam, Mephaquin, Mefliam and others; generics available.
TAKE 1 TABLET OF 250 mg (228 mg base) ONCE A WEEK.
START 1-2 WEEKS BEFORE ENTERING THE MALARIOUS AREA, CONTINUE WEEKLY DURING YOUR STAY AND CONTINUE FOR 4 WEEKS AFTER LEAVING.
Note: Side effects include nausea and headache, including neurological side effects such as dizziness, ringing of the ears, and loss of balance. Psychiatric side effects include anxiety, depression, mistrustfulness, and hallucinations. Neurological side effects can occur any time during use and can last for long periods of time or become permanent even after the drug is stopped. Seek medical advice if any neurological or psychiatric side effects occur.
MEFLOQUINE HYDROCHLORIDE IS NOT EFFECTIVE IN SOME AREAS OF THIS COUNTRY. SEE 'Areas with drug resistant Malaria' ABOVE FOR SPECIFIC LOCATIONS.