IAMAT |International Association of Medical Assistance to Travellers| IAMAT |International Association of Medical Assistance to Travellers|



Sudan For Specific Travellers:
Rift Valley Fever


Rift Valley Fever cases have been reported in Merowe in Northern State.

Source: ProMED-mail

Last updated: October 23, 2020.



Rift Valley Fever is an infection caused by the RVF virus belonging to the the Bunyaviridae family. It is a zoonosis – an animal disease that can spread to humans – that primarily affects livestock such as cattle, sheep, goats, buffalo, and camels. Humans become ill with Rift Valley Fever when they are bitten by infected mosquitoes, blood feeding flies, or come into contact with infected animal blood, fluid, or tissues through a skin lesion or inhaling infected air droplets from animals. No human to human transmission of the RVF virus has been reported.


The infection is endemic in northern, eastern, and southern Africa and outbreaks have also occurred in the Arabian Peninsula. There is greater risk for campers or persons spending a significant time outdoors. RIft Valley Fever is an occupational risk for veterinarians, herders, and abattoir workers.


In some cases the infection is asymptomatic – persons do not exhibit symptoms. However, those who show symptoms get ill 2 to 6 days after exposure to the virus with flu-like symptoms, including sudden fever, muscle and joint pain, and headache. Sensitivity to light, neck stiffness, vomiting and loss of appetite are also common. Most patients recover 4 to 7 days later, but some end up with one or more severe forms of the infection: Ocular syndrome (legions to the retina causing possible vision loss), meningoencephalitis (brain swelling causing memory loss, hallucinations, and convulsions) and /or haemorrhagic fever (uncontrolled bleeding and possible liver damage).

  • Avoid coming into close contact with animals.
  • Do not and eat or drink unpasteurized milk, dairy products, and undercooked meat. 
  • Use a repellent containing 20%-30% DEET or 20% Picaridin on exposed skin. Re-apply according to manufacturer's directions.
  • Wear neutral-coloured (beige, light grey) clothing. If possible, wear long-sleeved, breathable garments.
  • If available, pre-soak or spray outer layer clothing and gear with permethrin.
  • Get rid of water containers around dwellings and ensure that door and window screens work properly.
  • Apply sunscreen first followed by the repellent (preferably 20 minutes later).
  • More details on insect bite prevention.

There is no preventive medication or vaccine against Rift Valley Fever.

Rift Valley Fever virus images, life cycle, and distribution maps:

Infection Landscapes

Information last updated: November 16, 2020

Travel Health Journal