IAMAT |International Association of Medical Assistance to Travellers| IAMAT |International Association of Medical Assistance to Travellers|

Country Health Advice Nepal

For Specific Travellers: Brucellosis

Nepal has confirmed cases of Brucellosis in Kathmandu. 

For the latest information on Brucellosis outbreaks please go to: ProMED-mail. Vector borne diseases - Nepal: (Chitwan). ProMED-mail 2017; October 19: 20171019.5390990. <ProMED-mail>. Accessed on October 19, 2017. 

Description

Brucellosis is a zoonosis – an animal infection that can spread to humans – caused by the Brucella bacteria which are transmitted to humans by infected animals such as cows, sheep, goats, pigs, camels, bison, or dogs.

Risk

Brucella bacteria are found worldwide. Travellers are at risk when coming into contact with infected animals or contaminated dairy and meat products through:

  1. Ingestion by eating or drinking contaminated milk products.
  2. Skin lesions where the bacteria invade the blood stream; usually affects meat packers, abattoir workers, veterinarians, and hunters.
  3. Inhalation, although not common, mostly affects abattoir employees and lab workers doing research on the bacteria.
Symptoms

Usually symptoms appear between 5 to 60 days, sometimes longer, and include fever, headaches, sweats, back pain and general weakness. In more severe cases, the bacteria attack the central nervous system and the heart, and patients suffer from chronic joint pain, fatigue and recurring fevers. Treatment includes antibiotics.

Prevention
  • Avoid unpasteurized milk products, including raw cheese and ice cream. If you are not sure whether the product is pasteurized or not, avoid eating it.
  • Wash your hands thoroughly and frequently with soap and water or if not available, use an alcohol based hand sanitizer after coming into contact with animals.

There is no preventive medication or vaccination available against Brucellosis for humans.

Health risk description last reviewed: June 15, 2016
Country information last updated: October 19, 2017


Sources

  • Gotuzzo E, Pappas G. Brucellosis. In: Guerrant, R; Walker D; Weller P, eds. Tropical Infectious Diseases. 3rd ed. New York: Saunders Elsevier; 2011: 271-275. 
  • Pappas G. Brucellosis. In: McGill, A; Ryan, E; Hill, D; Solomon, T, eds. Hunter's Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. New York: Saunders Elsevier; 2013: 577-579.
  • Wertheim, Heiman; Horby, Peter; Woodall, John, eds. Atlas of Human Infectious Diseases. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012. 273 p.
  • Canadian Food Inspection Agency: Brucellosis Fact Sheet


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