IAMAT |International Association of Medical Assistance to Travellers| IAMAT |International Association of Medical Assistance to Travellers|

Country Health Advice Kenya

General Health Risks: Chikungunya

Kenya has confirmed Chikungunya cases in Mandera county.

For the latest information on Chikungunya outbreaks please go to: ProMED-mail. Chikungunya (13): Americas, Asia, Pacific, Africa, Europe. ProMED-mail 2016; August 18: 20160818.4426342. <ProMED-mail>. Accessed on August 19, 2016.

Description

Chikungunya is a viral infection caused by the CHIK virus belonging to the Togaviridae family. The virus is transmitted through the bite of infected daytime biting female – primarily Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus – mosquitoes. They usually bite during the early morning and late afternoon, and are typically found in and around urban and suburban dwellings. Some mosquitoes that transmit Chikungunya in Africa also live in forested areas. Monkeys and other wild animals are also believed to be reservoirs or carriers of the virus.

Risk

Travellers going to the Caribbean, Central America, South America, sub-Saharan Africa, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent are at risk, especially during the rainy season. Isolated cases of locally acquired Chikungunya have occurred in the USA, Italy and France.

Symptoms

In some cases, Chikungunya is asymptomatic – persons do not exhibit symptoms. Those with symptoms usually get ill 3-12 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. Symptoms include sudden fever and severe muscle and joint pain. They can be accompanied by headache, fatigue nausea, vomiting, and a rash. Although most patients fully recover, chronic joint pain may last for several weeks or months. Other persistent problems may include eye, gastrointestinal, neurological, and heart complications. Persons with chronic health conditions, a weakened immune system, infants, and older persons are at risk of developing complications with this infection. Chikungunya is rarely fatal. Treatment includes supportive care of symptoms. There is no antiviral treatment available. 

If you have had Chikungunya in the past, you are immune to subsequent infections. Chikungunya virus can be misdiagnosed for Zika Virus or Dengue.

Prevention

Travellers should take meticulous measures to prevent mosquito bites during the daytime.

  • Use a repellent containing 20%-30% DEET or 20% Picaridin on exposed skin. Re-apply according to manufacturer's directions.
  • Wear neutral-coloured (beige, light grey) clothing. If possible, wear long-sleeved, breathable garments.
  • If available, pre-soak or spray outer layer clothing and gear with permethrin.
  • Get rid of water containers around dwellings and ensure that door and window screens work properly.
  • Apply sunscreen first followed by the repellent (preferably 20 mintues later).
  • More details on insect bite prevention.

There is no preventive medication or vaccine against Chikungunya.

Health risk description last reviewed: June 16, 2016
Country information last updated: April 10, 2017


Sources

  • Chhabra M, Mittal V. Chikungunya Fever. In: McGill, A; Ryan, E; Hill, D; Solomon, T, eds. Hunter's Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. New York: Saunders Elsevier; 2013: 311-314.
  • Tsai T. Arboviruses of Medical Importance. In: Jong, E; Stevens, D, eds. Netter’s Infectious Diseases. New York: Saunders Elsevier; 2012: 419-424.
  • Weaver SC, Smith DW. Alphavirus Infections. In: Guerrant, R; Walker D; Weller P, eds. Tropical Infectious Diseases. 3rd ed. New York: Saunders Elsevier; 2011: 519-524.
  • Wertheim, Heiman; Horby, Peter; Woodall, John, eds. Atlas of Human Infectious Diseases. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012. 273 p.
  • Pan American Health Organization: Chikungunya: A New Virus in the Region of the Americas
  • World Health Organization: Chikungunya Fact Sheet No. 327


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