In 2006, urban and suburban areas were declared free of transmission by T. infestans (the most domesticated vector) due to extensive public education and eradication programs. However, the extent of human infection in remote rural areas, especially in the Amazon region, is unknown and might be aggravated by increased settlement, deforestation and destruction of forest (sylvatic) habitats. Vectors and wild animal reservoirs are present throughout Brazil.
Main vectors: Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma sordida. The insects are locally known as 'barbeiros'.